Warning: This document is for the development version of Bareos Documentation. The main version is bareos-20.


The functionality of Bareos can be extended by plugins. They do exists plugins for the different daemons (Director, Storage- and File-Daemon).

To use plugins, they must be enabled in the configuration (Plugin Directory and optionally Plugin Names).

If a Plugin Directory is specified Plugin Names defines, which plugins get loaded.

If Plugin Names is not defined, all plugins get loaded.

File Daemon Plugins

File Daemon plugins are configured by the Plugin directive of a File Set.


Currently the plugin command is being stored as part of the backup. The restore command in your directive should be flexible enough if things might change in future, otherwise you could run into trouble.

bpipe Plugin

The bpipe plugin is a generic pipe program, that simply transmits the data from a specified program to Bareos for backup, and from Bareos to a specified program for restore. The purpose of the plugin is to provide an interface to any system program for backup and restore. That allows you, for example, to do database backups without a local dump. By using different command lines to bpipe, you can backup any kind of data (ASCII or binary) depending on the program called.

On Linux, the Bareos bpipe plugin is part of the bareos-filedaemon package and is therefore installed on any system running the filedaemon.

The bpipe plugin is so simple and flexible, you may call it the “Swiss Army Knife” of the current existing plugins for Bareos.

The bpipe plugin is specified in the Include section of your Job’s FileSet resource in your bareos-dir.conf.

bpipe fileset
FileSet {
  Name = "MyFileSet"
  Include {
    Options {
      signature = MD5
      compression = gzip
    Plugin = "bpipe:file=<filepath>:reader=<readprogram>:writer=<writeprogram>

The syntax and semantics of the Plugin directive require the first part of the string up to the colon to be the name of the plugin. Everything after the first colon is ignored by the File daemon but is passed to the plugin. Thus the plugin writer may define the meaning of the rest of the string as he wishes. The full syntax of the plugin directive as interpreted by the bpipe plugin is:

bpipe directive
Plugin = "<plugin>:file=<filepath>:reader=<readprogram>:writer=<writeprogram>"
is the name of the plugin with the trailing -fd.so stripped off, so in this case, we would put bpipe in the field.
specifies the namespace, which for bpipe is the pseudo path and filename under which the backup will be saved. This pseudo path and filename will be seen by the user in the restore file tree. For example, if the value is /MySQL/mydump.sql, the data backed up by the plugin will be put under that “pseudo” path and filename. You must be careful to choose a naming convention that is unique to avoid a conflict with a path and filename that actually exists on your system.
for the bpipe plugin specifies the “reader” program that is called by the plugin during backup to read the data. bpipe will call this program by doing a popen on it.
for the bpipe plugin specifies the “writer” program that is called by the plugin during restore to write the data back to the filesystem.

Please note that the two items above describing the “reader” and “writer”, these programs are “executed” by Bareos, which means there is no shell interpretation of any command line arguments you might use. If you want to use shell characters (redirection of input or output, …), then we recommend that you put your command or commands in a shell script and execute the script. In addition if you backup a file with reader program, when running the writer program during the restore, Bareos will not automatically create the path to the file. Either the path must exist, or you must explicitly do so with your command or in a shell script.

See the examples about Backup of a PostgreSQL Database and Backup of a MySQL Database.

LDAP Plugin

This plugin is intended to backup (and restore) the contents of a LDAP server. It uses normal LDAP operation for this. The package bareos-filedaemon-ldap-python-plugin (Version >= 15.2.0) contains an example configuration file, that must be adapted to your envirnoment.

Cephfs Plugin

Opposite to the Rados Backend that is used to store data on a CEPH Object Store, this plugin is intended to backup a CEPH Object Store via the Cephfs interface to other media. The package bareos-filedaemon-ceph-plugin (Version >= 15.2.0) contains an example configuration file, that must be adapted to your envirnoment.

Rados Plugin

Opposite to the Rados Backend that is used to store data on a CEPH Object Store, this plugin is intended to backup a CEPH Object Store via the Rados interface to other media. The package bareos-filedaemon-ceph-plugin (Version >= 15.2.0) contains an example configuration file, that must be adapted to your envirnoment.

GlusterFS Plugin

Opposite to the GFAPI Backend that is used to store data on a Gluster system, this plugin is intended to backup data from a Gluster system to other media. The package bareos-filedaemon-glusterfs-plugin (Version >= 15.2.0) contains an example configuration file, that must be adapted to your envirnoment.

python-fd Plugin

The python-fd plugin behaves similar to the python-dir Plugin. Base plugins and an example get installed via the package bareos-filedaemon-python-plugin. Configuration is done in the FileSet Resource on the director.

We basically distinguish between command-plugin and option-plugins.

Command Plugins

Command plugins are used to replace or extend the FileSet definition in the File Section. If you have a command-plugin, you can use it like in this example:

bareos-dir.conf: Python FD command plugins
FileSet {
  Name = "mysql"
  Include {
    Options {
      Signature = MD5 # calculate md5 checksum per file
    File = "/etc"
    Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-mysql"

This example uses the MySQL plugin to backup MySQL dumps in addition to /etc.

Option Plugins

Option plugins are activated in the Options resource of a FileSet definition.


bareos-dir.conf: Python FD option plugins
FileSet {
  Name = "option"
  Include {
    Options {
      Signature = MD5 # calculate md5 checksum per file
      Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-file-interact"
    File = "/etc"
    File = "/usr/lib/bareos/plugins"

This plugin bareos-fd-file-interact from https://github.com/bareos/bareos-contrib/tree/master/fd-plugins/options-plugin-sample has a method that is called before and after each file that goes into the backup, it can be used as a template for whatever plugin wants to interact with files before or after backup.

VMware Plugin

The VMware Plugin can be used for agentless backups of virtual machines running on VMware vSphere. It makes use of CBT (Changed Block Tracking) to do space efficient full and incremental backups, see below for mandatory requirements.

It is included in Bareos since Version >= 15.2.0.


The Plugin can do full, differential and incremental backup and restore of VM disks.

Current limitations amongst others are:

Limitation - VMware Plugin: Normal VM disks can not be excluded from the backup.

It is not yet possible to exclude normal (dependent) VM disks from backups. However, independent disks are excluded implicitly because they are not affected by snapshots which are required for CBT based backup.

Limitation - VMware Plugin: VM configuration is not backed up.

The VM configuration is not backed up, so that it is not yet possible to recreate a completely deleted VM.

Limitation - VMware Plugin: Virtual Disks have to be smaller than 2TB for restore to local VMDK.

Virtual Disks have to be smaller than 2 TB for being able to restore to local VMDK files, see Issue #670.

Limitation - VMware Plugin: Restore can only be done to the same VM or to local VMDK files.

Until Bareos Version 15.2.2, the restore has only be possible to the same existing VM with existing virtual disks. Since Version >= 15.2.3 %**bareos-vadp-dumper** Version >= 15.2.2-15 and %**bareos-vmware-plugin** Version >= 15.2.2-27 it is also possible to restore to local VMDK files, see below for more details.


As the Plugin is based on the VMware vSphere Storage APIs for Data Protection, which requires at least a VMware vSphere Essentials License. It is tested against VMware vSphere Storage APIs for Data Protection of VMware 7.0.1. It does not work with standalone unlicensed VMware ESXi™.

Since Bareos Version >= 18.2.10 the plugin is using the Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK) 7.0.1, as of the VDDK 7.0 release notes, it should be compatible with vSphere 7.0 and the next major release (except new features) and backward compatible with vSphere 6.5 and 6.7, see VDDK release notes at https://code.vmware.com/web/sdk/7.0/vddk for details.

This plugin requires the pyVmomi module. Since Bareos Version >= 18.2.10 the package bareos-vmware-plugin no longer includes a dependency on a pyVmomi package, because some Linux distributions don’t provide current versions. Consequently, pyVmomi must be either installed by using pip install pyvmomi or by manually installing a distribution provided pyVmomi package.


Install the package bareos-vmware-plugin including its requirments by using an appropriate package management tool (eg. yum, zypper, apt)


First add a user account in vCenter that has full privileges by assigning the account to an administrator role or by adding the account to a group that is assigned to an administrator role. While any user account with full privileges could be used, it is better practice to create a separate user account, so that the actions by this account logged in vSphere are clearly distinguishable. In the future a more detailed set of required role privilges may be defined.

When using the vCenter appliance with embedded SSO, a user account usually has the structure <username>@vsphere.local, it may be different when using Active Directory as SSO in vCenter. For the examples here, we will use bakadm@vsphere.local with the password Bak.Adm-1234.

For more details regarding users and permissions in vSphere see

Make sure to add or enable the following settings in your Bareos File Daemon configuration:

Client {
  Plugin Directory = /usr/lib/bareos/plugins
  Plugin Names = python

Note: Depending on Platform, the Plugin Directory may also be /usr/lib64/bareos/plugins

To define the backup of a VM in Bareos, a job definition and a fileset resource must be added to the Bareos director configuration. In vCenter, VMs are usually organized in datacenters and folders. The following example shows how to configure the backup of the VM named websrv1 in the datacenter mydc1 folder webservers on the vCenter server vcenter.example.org:

bareos-dir.conf: VMware Plugin Job and FileSet definition
Job {
  Name = "vm-websrv1"
  JobDefs = "DefaultJob"
  FileSet = "vm-websrv1_fileset"

FileSet {
  Name = "vm-websrv1_fileset"

  Include {
    Options {
         signature = MD5
         Compression = GZIP
    Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:dc=mydc1:folder=/webservers:vmname=websrv1:vcserver=vcenter.example.org:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local:vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234"

For VMs defined in the root-folder, folder=/ must be specified in the Plugin definition.

Since Bareos Version >= 17.2.4 the module_path is without vmware_plugin directory. On upgrades you either adapt your configuration from

python:module_path for Bareos < 17.2.0
Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins/vmware_plugin:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:...


python:module_path for Bareos >= 17.2.0
Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:...

or install the bareos-vmware-plugin-compat package which includes compatibility symbolic links.

Since Version >= 17.2.4: as the Plugin is using the Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK) 6.5, it is required to pass the thumbprint of the vCenter SSL Certificate, which is the SHA1 checksum of the SSL Certificate. The thumbprint can be retrieved like this:

Example Retrieving vCenter SSL Certificate Thumbprint
echo -n | openssl s_client -connect vcenter.example.org:443 2>/dev/null | openssl x509 -noout -fingerprint -sha1

The result would look like this:

Example Result Thumbprint
SHA1 Fingerprint=CC:81:81:84:A3:CF:53:ED:63:B1:46:EF:97:13:4A:DF:A5:9F:37:89

For additional security, there is a now plugin option vcthumbprint, that can optionally be added. It must be given without colons like in the following example:

bareos-dir.conf: VMware Plugin Options with vcthumbprint
    Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:dc=mydc1:folder=/webservers:vmname=websrv1:vcserver=vcenter.example.org:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local:vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234:vcthumbprint=56F597FE60521773D073A2ED47CE07282CE6FE9C"

For ease of use (but less secure) when the vcthumbprint is not given, the plugin will retrieve the thumbprint.

Also since Version >= 17.2.4 another optional plugin option has been added that can be used for trying to force a given transport method. Normally, when no transport method is given, VDDK will negotiate available transport methods and select the best one. For a description of transport methods, see


When the plugin runs in a VMware virtual machine which has access to datastore where the virtual disks to be backed up reside, VDDK will use the hotadd transport method. On a physical server without SAN access, it will use the NBD transport method, hotadd transport is not available in this case.

To try forcing a given transport method, the plugin option transport can be used, for example

bareos-dir.conf: VMware Plugin options with transport
    Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:dc=mydc1:folder=/webservers:vmname=websrv1:vcserver=vcenter.example.org:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local:vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234:transport=nbdssl"

Note that the backup will fail when specifying a transport method that is not available.

Since Version >= 17.2.8 it is possible to use non-ascii characters and blanks in the configuration for folder and vmname. Also virtual disk file names or paths containing non-ascii characters are handled correctly now. For backing up VMs that are contained in vApps, it is now possible to use the vApp name like a folder component. For example, if we have the vApp named Test vApp in the folder /Test/Test Folder and the vApp contains the two VMs Test VM 01 and Test VM 02, then the configuration of the filesets should look like this:

bareos-dir.conf: VMware Plugin FileSet definition for vApp
FileSet {
  Name = "vApp_Test_vm_Test_VM_01_fileset"

  Include {
    Options {
         signature = MD5
         Compression = GZIP
    Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:dc=mydc1:folder=/Test/Test Folder/Test vApp:vmname=Test VM 01:vcserver=vcenter.example.org:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local:vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234"

FileSet {
  Name = "vApp_Test_vm_Test_VM_02_fileset"

  Include {
    Options {
         signature = MD5
         Compression = GZIP
    Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:dc=mydc1:folder=/Test/Test Folder/Test vApp:vmname=Test VM 02:vcserver=vcenter.example.org:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local:vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234"

However, it is important to know that it is not possible to use non-ascii characters as an argument for the Name of a job or fileset resource.

Before this, it was only possible specify VMs contained in vApps by using the instance UUID with the uuid instead of folder and vmname like this:

bareos-dir.conf: VMware Plugin FileSet definition for vApp
FileSet {
  Name = "vApp_Test_vm_Test_VM_01_fileset"

    Plugin = "python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:dc=mydc1:uuid=502b112f-3954-d761-be08-5570c8a780e2:vcserver=vcenter.example.org:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local:vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234"

Note that it must be the so called vSphere instance UUID, not the BIOS UUID which is shown inside a VM when using for example dmidecode. The vmware_cbt_tool.py utility was adapted accordingly (see below for details).


Before running the first backup, CBT (Changed Block Tracking) must be enabled for the VMs to be backed up.

As of http://kb.vmware.com/kb/2075984 manually enabling CBT is currently not working properly. The API however works properly. To enable CBT use the Script vmware_cbt_tool.py, it is packaged in the bareos-vmware-plugin package:

usage of vmware_cbt_tool.py
# <parameter>vmware_cbt_tool.py --help</parameter>
usage: vmware_cbt_tool.py [-h] -s HOST [-o PORT] -u USER [-p PASSWORD] -d
                          DATACENTER [-f FOLDER] [-v VMNAME]
                          [--vm-uuid VM_UUID] [--enablecbt] [--disablecbt]
                          [--resetcbt] [--info] [--listall]

Process args for enabling/disabling/resetting CBT

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -s HOST, --host HOST  Remote host to connect to
  -o PORT, --port PORT  Port to connect on
  -u USER, --user USER  User name to use when connecting to host
  -p PASSWORD, --password PASSWORD
                        Password to use when connecting to host
  -d DATACENTER, --datacenter DATACENTER
                        DataCenter Name
  -f FOLDER, --folder FOLDER
                        Folder Name (must start with /, use / for root folder
  -v VMNAME, --vmname VMNAME
                        Names of the Virtual Machines
  --vm-uuid VM_UUID     Instance UUIDs of the Virtual Machines
  --enablecbt           Enable CBT
  --disablecbt          Disable CBT
  --resetcbt            Reset CBT (disable, then enable)
  --info                Show information (CBT supported and enabled or
  --listall             List all VMs in the given datacenter with UUID and
                        containing folder

Note: the options --vm-uuid and --listall have been added in version Version >= 17.2.8, the tool is also able now to process non-ascii character arguments for the --folder and --vmname arguments and vApp names can be used like folder name components. With --listall all VMs in the given datacenter are reported in a tabular output including instance UUID and containing Folder/vApp name.

For the above configuration example, the command to enable CBT would be

Example using vmware_cbt_tool.py
# <parameter>vmware_cbt_tool.py -s vcenter.example.org -u bakadm@vsphere.local -p Bak.Adm-1234 -d mydc1 -f /webservers -v websrv1 --enablecbt</parameter>

Note: CBT does not work if the virtual hardware version is 6 or earlier.

After enabling CBT, Backup Jobs can be run or scheduled as usual, for example in bconsole:

run job=vm-websrv1 level=Full


For restore, the VM must be powered off and no snapshot must exist. In bconsole use the restore menu 5, select the correct FileSet and enter mark *, then done. After restore has finished, the VM can be powered on.

Restore to local VMDK File

Since Version >= 15.2.3 it is possible to restore to local VMDK files. That means, instead of directly restoring a disk that belongs to the VM, the restore creates VMDK disk image files on the filesystem of the system that runs the Bareos File Daemon. As the VM that the backup was taken from is not affected by this, it can remain switched on while restoring to local VMDK. Such a restored VMDK file can then be uploaded to a VMware vSphere datastore or accessed by tools like guestfish to extract single files.

For restoring to local VMDK, the plugin option localvmdk=yes must be passed. The following example shows how to perform such a restore using bconsole:

Example restore to local VMDK
Automatically selected Catalog: MyCatalog
Using Catalog "MyCatalog"

First you select one or more JobIds that contain files
to be restored. You will be presented several methods
of specifying the JobIds. Then you will be allowed to
select which files from those JobIds are to be restored.

To select the JobIds, you have the following choices:
     1: List last 20 Jobs run
     5: Select the most recent backup for a client
    13: Cancel
Select item:  (1-13): <input>5</input>
Automatically selected Client: vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-fd
The defined FileSet resources are:
     1: Catalog
     5: PyTestSetVmware-test02
     6: PyTestSetVmware-test03
Select FileSet resource (1-10): <input>5</input>
| jobid | level | jobfiles | jobbytes      | starttime           | volumename       |
|   625 | F     |        4 | 4,733,002,754 | 2016-02-18 10:32:03 | Full-0067        |
You have selected the following JobIds: 625,626,631,632,635

Building directory tree for JobId(s) 625,626,631,632,635 ...
10 files inserted into the tree.

You are now entering file selection mode where you add (mark) and
remove (unmark) files to be restored. No files are initially added, unless
you used the "all" keyword on the command line.
Enter "done" to leave this mode.

cwd is: /
$ <input>mark *</input>
10 files marked.
$ <input>done</input>
Bootstrap records written to /var/lib/bareos/vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-dir.restore.1.bsr

The job will require the following
   Volume(s)                 Storage(s)                SD Device(s)

    Full-0001                 File                      FileStorage
    Incremental-0078          File                      FileStorage

Volumes marked with "*" are online.

10 files selected to be restored.

Using Catalog "MyCatalog"
Run Restore job
JobName:         RestoreFiles
Bootstrap:       /var/lib/bareos/vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-dir.restore.1.bsr
Where:           /tmp/bareos-restores
Replace:         Always
FileSet:         Linux All
Backup Client:   vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-fd
Restore Client:  vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-fd
Format:          Native
Storage:         File
When:            2016-02-25 15:06:48
Catalog:         MyCatalog
Priority:        10
Plugin Options:  *None*
OK to run? (yes/mod/no): <input>mod</input>
Parameters to modify:
     1: Level
    14: Plugin Options
Select parameter to modify (1-14): <input>14</input>
Please enter Plugin Options string: <input>python:localvmdk=yes</input>
Run Restore job
JobName:         RestoreFiles
Bootstrap:       /var/lib/bareos/vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-dir.restore.1.bsr
Where:           /tmp/bareos-restores
Replace:         Always
FileSet:         Linux All
Backup Client:   vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-fd
Restore Client:  vmw5-bareos-centos6-64-devel-fd
Format:          Native
Storage:         File
When:            2016-02-25 15:06:48
Catalog:         MyCatalog
Priority:        10
Plugin Options:  python: module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware: dc=dass5:folder=/: vmname=stephand-test02: vcserver=virtualcenter5.dass-it:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local: vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234: localvmdk=yes
OK to run? (yes/mod/no): <input>yes</input>
Job queued. JobId=639

Note: Since Bareos Version >= 15.2.3 it is sufficient to add Python plugin options, e.g. by


Before, all Python plugin must be repeated and the additional be added, like: python:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-fd-vmware:dc=dass5:folder=/:vmname=stephand-test02:vcserver=virtualcenter5.dass-it:vcuser=bakadm@vsphere.local:vcpass=Bak.Adm-1234:localvmdk=yes

After the restore process has finished, the restored VMDK files can be found under path{/tmp/bareos-restores/}:

Example result of restore to local VMDK
# <input>ls -laR /tmp/bareos-restores</input>
total 28
drwxr-x--x.  3 root root  4096 Feb 25 15:47 .
drwxrwxrwt. 17 root root 20480 Feb 25 15:44 ..
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root  4096 Feb 25 15:19 [ESX5-PS100] stephand-test02

/tmp/bareos-restores/[ESX5-PS100] stephand-test02:
total 7898292
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root       4096 Feb 25 15:19 .
drwxr-x--x. 3 root root       4096 Feb 25 15:47 ..
-rw-------. 1 root root 2075197440 Feb 25 15:19 stephand-test02_1.vmdk
-rw-------. 1 root root 6012731392 Feb 25 15:19 stephand-test02.vmdk

Storage Daemon Plugins


This plugin is part of the bareos-storage package.

The autoxflate-sd plugin can inflate (decompress) and deflate (compress) the data being written to or read from a device. It can also do both.


Therefore the autoxflate plugin inserts a inflate and a deflate function block into the stream going to the device (called OUT) and coming from the device (called IN).

Each stream passes first the inflate function block, then the deflate function block.

The inflate blocks are controlled by the setting of the Auto Inflate (Sd->Device) directive.

The deflate blocks are controlled by the setting of the Auto Deflate (Sd->Device), Auto Deflate Algorithm (Sd->Device) and Auto Deflate Level (Sd->Device) directives.

The inflate blocks, if enabled, will uncompress data if it is compressed using the algorithm that was used during compression.

The deflate blocks, if enabled, will compress uncompressed data with the algorithm and level configured in the according directives.

The series connection of the inflate and deflate function blocks makes the plugin very flexible.

Szenarios where this plugin can be used are for example:

  • client computers with weak cpus can do backups without compression and let the sd do the compression when writing to disk
  • compressed backups can be recompressed to a different compression format (e.g. gzip → lzo) using migration jobs
  • client backups can be compressed with compression algorithms that the client itself does not support

Multi-core cpus will be utilized when using parallel jobs as the compression is done in each jobs’ thread.

When the autoxflate plugin is configured, it will write some status information into the joblog.

used compression algorithm
autodeflation: compressor on device FileStorage is FZ4H
configured inflation and deflation blocks
autoxflate-sd.c: FileStorage OUT:[SD->inflate=yes->deflate=yes->DEV] IN:[DEV->inflate=yes->deflate=yes->SD]
overall deflation/inflation ratio
autoxflate-sd.c: deflate ratio: 50.59%

Additional Auto Xflate On Replication (Sd->Storage) can be configured at the Storage resource.


This plugin is part of the bareos-storage-tape package.


LTO Hardware Encryption

Modern tape-drives, for example LTO (from LTO4 onwards) support hardware encryption. There are several ways of using encryption with these drives. The following three types of key management are available for encrypting drives. The transmission of the keys to the volumes is accomplished by either of the three:

  • A backup application that supports Application Managed Encryption (AME)
  • A tape library that supports Library Managed Encryption (LME)
  • A Key Management Appliance (KMA)

We added support for Application Managed Encryption (AME) scheme, where on labeling a crypto key is generated for a volume and when the volume is mounted, the crypto key is loaded. When finally the volume is unmounted, the key is cleared from the memory of the Tape Drive using the SCSI SPOUT command set.

If you have implemented Library Managed Encryption (LME) or a Key Management Appliance (KMA), there is no need to have support from Bareos on loading and clearing the encryption keys, as either the Library knows the per volume encryption keys itself, or it will ask the KMA for the encryption key when it needs it. For big installations you might consider using a KMA, but the Application Managed Encryption implemented in Bareos should also scale rather well and have a low overhead as the keys are only loaded and cleared when needed.

The scsicrypto-sd plugin

The scsicrypto-sd hooks into the unload, label read, label write and label verified events for loading and clearing the key. It checks whether it it needs to clear the drive by either using an internal state (if it loaded a key before) or by checking the state of a special option that first issues an encrytion status query. If there is a connection to the director and the volume information is not available, it will ask the director for the data on the currently loaded volume. If no connection is available, a cache will be used which should contain the most recently mounted volumes. If an encryption key is available, it will be loaded into the drive’s memory.

Changes in the director

The director has been extended with additional code for handling hardware data encryption. The extra keyword encrypt on the label of a volume will force the director to generate a new semi-random passphrase for the volume, which will be stored in the database as part of the media information.

A passphrase is always stored in the database base64-encoded. When a so called Key Encryption Key is set in the config of the director, the passphrase is first wrapped using RFC3394 key wrapping and then base64-encoded. By using key wrapping, the keys in the database are safe against people sniffing the info, as the data is still encrypted using the Key Encryption Key (which in essence is just an extra passphrase of the same length as the volume passphrases used).

When the storage daemon needs to mount the volume, it will ask the director for the volume information and that protocol is extended with the exchange of the base64-wrapped encryption key (passphrase). The storage daemon provides an extra config option in which it records the Key Encryption Key of the particular director, and as such can unwrap the key sent into the original passphrase.

As can be seen from the above info we don’t allow the user to enter a passphrase, but generate a semi-random passphrase using the openssl random functions (if available) and convert that into a readable ASCII stream of letters, numbers and most other characters, apart from the quotes and space etc. This will produce much stronger passphrases than when requesting the info from a user. As we store this information in the database, the user never has to enter these passphrases.

The volume label is written in unencrypted form to the volume, so we can always recognize a Bareos volume. When the key is loaded onto the drive, we set the decryption mode to mixed, so we can read both unencrypted and encrypted data from the volume. When no key or the wrong key has been loaded, the drive will give an IO error when trying to read the volume. For disaster recovery you can store the Key Encryption Key and the content of the wrapped encryption keys somewhere safe and the bscrypto tool together with the scsicrypto-sd plugin can be used to get access to your volumes, in case you ever lose your complete environment.

If you don’t want to use the scsicrypto-sd plugin when doing DR and you are only reading one volume, you can also set the crypto key using the bscrypto tool. Because we use the mixed decryption mode, in which you can read both encrypted and unencrypted data from a volume, you can set the right encryption key before reading the volume label.

If you need to read more than one volume, you better use the scsicrypto-sd plugin with tools like bscan/bextract, as the plugin will then auto-load the correct encryption key when it loads the volume, similiarly to what the storage daemon does when performing backups and restores.

The volume label is unencrypted, so a volume can also be recognized by a non-encrypted installation, but it won’t be able to read the actual data from it. Using an encrypted volume label doesn’t add much security (there is no security-related info in the volume label anyhow) and it makes it harder to recognize either a labeled volume with encrypted data or an unlabeled new volume (both would return an IO-error on read of the label.)


SCSI crypto setup

The initial setup of SCSI crypto looks something like this:

  • Generate a Key Encryption Key e.g.

    bscrypto -g -

For details see bscrypto.

Security Setup

Some security levels need to be increased for the storage daemon to be able to use the low level SCSI interface for setting and getting the encryption status on a tape device.

The following additional security is needed for the following operating systems:

Linux (SG_IO ioctl interface):

The user running the storage daemon needs the following additional capabilities:

  • CAP_SYS_RAWIO (see capabilities(7))
    • On older kernels you might need CAP_SYS_ADMIN. Try CAP_SYS_RAWIO first and if that doesn’t work try CAP_SYS_ADMIN
  • If you are running the storage daemon as another user than root (which has the CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability), you need to add it to the current set of capabilities.
  • If you are using systemd, you could add this additional capability to the CapabilityBoundingSet parameter.
    • For systemd add the following to the bareos-sd.service: Capabilities=cap_sys_rawio+ep

You can also set up the extra capability on bscrypto and bareos-sd by running the following commands:

setcap cap_sys_rawio=ep bscrypto
setcap cap_sys_rawio=ep bareos-sd

Check the setting with

getcap -v bscrypto
getcap -v bareos-sd

getcap and setcap are part of libcap-progs.

If bareos-sd does not have the appropriate capabilities, all other tape operations may still work correctly, but you will get “Unable to perform SG_IO ioctl” errors.

Solaris (USCSI ioctl interface):

The user running the storage daemon needs the following additional privileges:

  • PRIV_SYS_DEVICES (see privileges(5))

If you are running the storage daemon as another user than root (which has the PRIV_SYS_DEVICES privilege), you need to add it to the current set of privileges. This can be set up by setting this either as a project for the user, or as a set of extra privileges in the SMF definition starting the storage daemon. The SMF setup is the cleanest one.

For SMF make sure you have something like this in the instance block:

<method_context working_directory=":default"> <method_credential user="bareos" group="bareos" privileges="basic,sys_devices"/> </method_context>
Changes in bareos-sd.conf
Changes in bareos-dir.conf


Restart the Storage Daemon and the Director. After this you can label new volumes with the encrypt option, e.g.

label slots=1-5 barcodes encrypt

Disaster Recovery

For Disaster Recovery (DR) you need the following information:

  • Actual bareos-sd.conf with config options enabled as described above, including, among others, a definition of a director with the Key Encryption Key used for creating the encryption keys of the volumes.
  • The actual keys used for the encryption of the volumes.

This data needs to be availabe as a so called crypto cache file which is used by the plugin when no connection to the director can be made to do a lookup (most likely on DR).

Most of the times the needed information, e.g. the bootstrap info, is available on recently written volumes and most of the time the encryption cache will contain the most recent data, so a recent copy of the bareos-sd.<portnr>.cryptoc file in the working directory is enough most of the time. You can also save the info from database in a safe place and use bscrypto to populate this info (VolumeName → EncryptKey) into the crypto cache file used by bextract and bscan. You can use bscrypto with the following flags to create a new or update an existing crypto cache file e.g.:

bscrypto -p /var/lib/bareos/bareos-sd.<portnr>.cryptoc
  • A valid BSR file containing the location of the last safe of the database makes recovery much easier. Adding a post script to the database save job could collect the needed info and make sure its stored somewhere safe.

  • Recover the database in the normal way e.g. for postgresql:

    bextract -D <director_name> -c bareos-sd.conf -V <volname> \ /dev/nst0 /tmp -b bootstrap.bsr
    psql bareos < /tmp/var/lib/bareos/bareos.sql

Or something similar (change paths to follow where you installed the software or where the package put it).

Note: As described at the beginning of this chapter, there are different types of key management, AME, LME and KMA. If the Library is set up for LME or KMA, it probably won’t allow our AME setup and the scsi-crypto plugin will fail to set/clear the encryption key. To be able to use AME you need to “Modify Encryption Method” and set it to something like “Application Managed”. If you decide to use LME or KMA you don’t have to bother with the whole setup of AME which may for big libraries be easier, although the overhead of using AME even for very big libraries should be minimal.


This plugin is part of the bareos-storage-tape package.

python-sd Plugin

The python-sd plugin behaves similar to the python-dir Plugin.

Director Plugins

python-dir Plugin

The python-dir plugin is intended to extend the functionality of the Bareos Director by Python code. A working example is included.

  • install the bareos-director-python-plugin package
  • change to the Bareos plugin directory (/usr/lib/bareos/plugins/ or /usr/lib64/bareos/plugins/)
  • copy bareos-dir.py.template to bareos-dir.py
  • activate the plugin in the Bareos Director configuration
  • restart the Bareos Director
  • change bareos-dir.py as required
  • restart the Bareos Director

Loading plugins

Since Version >= 14.4.0 multiple Python plugins can be loaded and plugin names can be arbitrary. Before this, the Python plugin always loads the file bareos-dir.py.

The director plugins are configured in the Job-Resource (or JobDefs resource). To load a Python plugin you need

  • pointing to your plugin directory (needs to be enabled in the Director resource, too
  • Your plugin (without the suffix .py)
  • default is ’0’, you can leave this, as long as you only have 1 Director Python plugin. If you have more than 1, start with instance=0 and increment the instance for each plugin.
  • You can add plugin specific option key-value pairs, each pair separated by ’:’ key=value

Single Python Plugin Loading Example:

bareos-dir.conf: Single Python Plugin Loading Example
Director {
  # ...
  # Plugin directory
  Plugin Directory = /usr/lib64/bareos/plugins
  # Load the python plugin
  Plugin Names = "python"

JobDefs {
  Name = "DefaultJob"
  Type = Backup
  # ...
  # Load the class based plugin with testoption=testparam
  Dir Plugin Options = "python:instance=0:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-dir-class-plugins:testoption=testparam
  # ...

Multiple Python Plugin Loading Example:

bareos-dir.conf: Multiple Python Plugin Loading Example
Director {
  # ...
  # Plugin directory
  Plugin Directory = /usr/lib64/bareos/plugins
  # Load the python plugin
  Plugin Names = "python"

JobDefs {
  Name = "DefaultJob"
  Type = Backup
  # ...
  # Load the class based plugin with testoption=testparam
  Dir Plugin Options = "python:instance=0:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-dir-class-plugins:testoption=testparam1
  Dir Plugin Options = "python:instance=1:module_path=/usr/lib64/bareos/plugins:module_name=bareos-dir-class-plugins:testoption=testparam2
  # ...

Write your own Python Plugin

Some plugin examples are available on https://github.com/bareos/bareos-contrib. The class-based approach lets you easily reuse stuff already defined in the baseclass BareosDirPluginBaseclass, which ships with the bareos-director-python-plugin package. The examples contain the plugin bareos-dir-nsca-sender, that submits the results and performance data of a backup job directly to Icinga:index:<single: Icinga> or Nagios:index:<single: Nagios|see{Icinga}> using the NSCA protocol.