Hardware sizing

Database system

PostgreSQL version

It is always advisable to use the latest currently supported PostgreSQL on your platform. With identical contents, we have observed that PostgreSQL 12 required half of the space of a PostgreSQL 10 installation.

PostgreSQL setup

The database files should be stored on SSD storage. The database configuration should be optimized for the amount of memory that the database has available. A good starting point is using pgtune, a website that allows to set some basic information and generates a PostgreSQL configuration. For pgtune the DB type of the Bareos catalog database is a “Data Warehouse”.

The file table

The by far biggest table in the Bareos catalog database is the file table. Typically this is about 90-95% of the database’s total size. The size of the file table depends on the number of files that are stored and the average length of a filename (without path).

Roughly 40% of the file table size is consumed by its indexes.

The other noticeable table is path with its indexes. The amount of space used is roughly \(\frac{1}{10}\) of the file table.

To have optimum performance, the memory available for the Bareos catalog database should be at least the size of the file and path table indexes.

Database size estimation

Depending on the number of files and the average length of filenames, the database size can be estimated using the following calculations:

To calculate the number of files in the DB, the number of files being backed up from all systems needs to be multiplied by the number of times that they will be kept in the database.

The amount of data per file or path in the DB, depends on the size of filenames or path length that are being backed up, but we have analyzed some real-world examples and found that values between 250 and 350 bytes per row are usual.

The size of the path indexes is around 60% of the table size.

So the calculation of the size of the file and path tables can be approximated with the following formula:

\[\begin{split}\begin{split} s &= n_f \times n_b \times 300 \frac{\mbox{bytes}}{\mbox{row}} \\ p &= \frac{s}{10} \\ s &: \mbox{storage required for file table} \\ n_f &: \mbox{number of files in a (full) backup} \\ n_b &: \mbox{number of (full) backups} \\ p &: \mbox{storage required for path table} \\ \end{split}\end{split}\]

Example: If 2.000.000 files are backed up during a full backup, a full backup is run every week and the retention of the backups is 4 weeks, the total amount of files would be

\[\begin{split}\begin{split} n_f &= 2.000.000\ \mbox{Files} \\ n_b &= 4\ \mbox{Full Backups} \\ s &= n_f \times n_b \times 300 \frac{\mbox{bytes}}{\mbox{row}} \\ &= 2.000.000\ \mbox{Files} \times 4\ \mbox{Full Backups} \times 300 \frac{\mbox{bytes}}{\mbox{row}} \\ &= 2.400.000.000\ \mbox{bytes} \\ &= 2.4\ \mbox{GB} \\ \ \ \\ p &= \frac{\mbox{s}}{10} \\ &= \frac{2.400}{10}\ \mbox{MB} \\ &= 240\ \mbox{MB} \\ \end{split}\end{split}\]

About 40% of the File and 60% of path table size should be available as RAM, so about 1GB.

PostgreSQL for its vacuum operation need also disk space to be able to rewrite the table. And you should also consider to have enough free space to allow creation of temporary tables used during certain operations. Heavy consolidation job can take several gigabytes of temporary space.

CPU considerations

During backups with Bareos, the amount of CPU consumed is influenced by different parameters.

System being backed up

  • Often is the backup speed limited by the I/O speed that can be read from the original filesystem.

  • The I/O speed of the filesystems being backed up or the network bandwidth are often not fast enough to saturate the CPU.

  • The TLS communication encryption (enabled by default) also consumes CPU power, especially when the I/O rate is very fast.

  • If data encryption is configured, the encryption is calculated on the source system and will consume CPU power there.

  • If signatures are enabled in your fileset, this will require additional CPU cycles to be calculated on the source system.

  • If data compression is configured, the compression is also executed on the source system and will consume CPU power there.

Storage Daemon System

  • The Bareos Storage Daemon receives the data from the clients and stores it to the storage media.

  • The Bareos Storage Daemon receives the data stream coming from the Clients and stores the data to local storage media.

  • Most CPU Power is consumed by the decryption of the TLS stream and by calculating Checksums that are verified before storing data to the storage media.

Depending on the available I/O throughput and the number of parallel jobs, different optimizations can be made:

  • For a relative small number of clients that send data at very high I/O rates, it makes sense to disable Hyperthreading Technologies so that less cores can operate at higher speed.

  • For a large number of clients with non-exceptional I/O rates, more CPU cores will provide better overall performance with parallel backup jobs than fast CPU cores.

As a starting point, reserve 512 MB of memory and \(\frac{1}{4}\) CPU core per concurrent job planned.


The Bareos Director itself has comparatively low CPU and RAM requirements. Most of the really expensive calculations are done by the database engine.

It is recommended to run the Bareos Director service together with the database server on the same machine, which minimizes the latency and overhead of the communication with the database.